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工商管理英語Chapter2 組織

時間:2006-01-08 16:00來源:互聯網 提供網友:zhx821120   字體: [ ]
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    (單詞翻譯:雙擊或拖選)

  [00:00.00]Vienna    n.
[00:00.69]維也納
[00:01.38]expect   vt.
[00:02.17]盼望
[00:02.95]stage   n.    vt.
[00:03.41]階段      上演
[00:03.87]scheduled     a.
[00:04.45]預定的
[00:05.04]contract    vt.      n.
[00:05.83]承包      合同
[00:06.61]foundation     n.
[00:07.35]基礎
[00:08.10]A:I'm phoning about the timing1 for the Vienna project.
[00:09.89]我打電話是想談一下維也納項目的時間安排。
[00:11.68]B:Right,we've got a starting date for that,haven't we?
[00:13.24]好的,我們已經確定了項目啟動時間,對吧?
[00:14.81]A:Yes,we begin a pilot study on 5 November.
[00:17.42]對,11月5號我們開始試點研究。
[00:20.04]B:Right,how long is that expected to last?
[00:21.63]好的,試點研究要進行多長時間?
[00:23.22]A:We should finish the study in three weeks.
[00:24.71]我們應該在三周之內完成。
[00:26.20]B:Good,then what's the next stage?
[00:28.25]好,那么下一階段怎么安排的?
[00:30.30]A:Well,we've got a meeting with the contractor2 scheduled for 1 December.
[00:33.62]嗯,我們預定12月1號與承包商會面。
[00:36.94]If everything goes according to plan,we'll sign the contract then.
[00:39.29]如果事事都按計劃進行,那時就可簽合同了。
[00:41.64]And work can begin at the beginning of January.
[00:43.62]然后1月初開始動工。
[00:45.61]B:So what's the first stage?
[00:46.58]那么第一階段是怎么安排的?
[00:47.54]A:Well,excavation will begin in January and is due to finish by the middle of February.
[00:51.24]嗯,1月份開始開挖,預計2月中旬完工。
[00:54.94]Now,after that we could have a problem.
[00:56.40]那么再往后我們可能就有問題了。
[00:57.86]B:What's that?
[00:58.51]什么問題?
[00:59.17]A:You remember we've subcontracted the German firm to do the foundations?
[01:02.55]你記得我們已把地基工程包給一家德國公司去做吧?
[01:05.93]They promised to start in the middle of February.
[01:07.79]他們原先答應2月中旬開工。
[01:09.64]They are now saying they can't.
[01:10.84]可是現在又說不行了。
[01:12.05]B:Right,I'll get on to them.
[01:12.95]好吧,我跟他們聯系一下。
[01:13.85]When are they due to finish the foundations?
[01:15.22]他們預定什么時候打完地基?
[01:16.59]A:In the contract,it says by 28 February.
[01:18.67]合同上說是2月28日。
[01:20.74]B:I see,and then?
[01:21.58]知道了,還有呢?
[01:22.42]A:Construction work should begin on 5 March.
[01:24.39]施工工作應該在3月5號開始。
[01:26.36]We're on a pretty tight schedule.
[01:27.88]我們時間很緊迫。
[01:29.39]All the work has to be done in March and April.
[01:30.95]全部工作都應在3、4月份完成。
[01:32.50]B:OK.I see the problem.
[01:33.43]行,情況我了解了。
[01:34.35]I'll phone you back in the afternoon at about three.Bye.
[01:36.31]今天下午3點鐘左右我給你回電話,再見吧。
[01:38.27]A:Goodbye.
[01:38.86]再見。
[01:39.45]authority     n.
[01:40.19]職權
[01:40.94]charisma    n.
[01:41.54]領袖魅力
[01:42.14]division of labor3
[01:42.99]勞動分工
[01:43.84]functional departmentalization
[01:44.93]能部門化
[01:46.03]functional structure
[01:46.87]職能型結構
[01:47.70]mechanistic organization
[01:48.83]機械式(官僚行政式)組織
[01:49.95]organic organization
[01:50.90]有機式組織
[01:51.86]organization design
[01:52.89]組織設計
[01:53.92]Organization structure describes the organization's formal framework or system of communication and authority.
[01:58.57]組織結構指的是組織內部正式的信息交流和行使職權的框架體系。
[02:03.22]Just as humans have skeletons that define their shapes,
[02:05.13]就像人體由骨骼確定了體型一樣,
[02:07.03]organizations have structures that define theirs.
[02:09.03]組織由它的結構決定其形式。
[02:11.03]The term complexity4 refers to the amount of differentiation5 in an organization.
[02:13.68]復雜性程序指的是組織分化的細致程度。
[02:16.33]The more division of labor there is in an organization,the more vertical6 levels in the hierarchy7,
[02:20.25]如果一個組織勞工分工越細,縱向的等級層次越多,
[02:24.17]and the more geographically8 dispersed9 the organization's units,
[02:26.47]單位的地理分布越廣,
[02:28.77]the more difficult it is to coordinate10 people and their activities.
[02:31.12]那么人員活動的協調就越困難。
[02:33.47]The degree to which an organization relies on rules and procedures to direct the behavior of employees is formalization.
[02:38.94]組織在多大程序上依靠規則和程序來指導員工的行為就是組織的正規化程度。
[02:44.41]The more rules and regulations in an organization,the more formalized the organization's structure.
[02:47.76]一個組織的規章條例越多,它的正規化程度就越高。
[02:51.10]The term centralization describes where the decision__making authority is.
[02:53.68]集權化程度是描述在哪一級行使決策職權。
[02:56.25]If decision making is in upper levels of management,the organization's structure is more centralized.
[03:00.02]如果一個組織中擁有決策的管理人員的層次越高,那么它的集權程度就越高。
[03:03.80]On the other side,decentralization is used in some organization where decision making is delegated to lower levels.
[03:08.43]反之,分權化程度高的組織的決策則由較低的管理層做出。
[03:13.07]Organization design means the development or changing of an organization's structure.
[03:16.28]組織設計是指對一個組織結構進行設置或變革。
[03:19.50]The process involves decisions about the amount of complexity,formalization,and centralization to be used.
[03:23.61]這個過程包括關于組織的復雜性,正規化及集權化程序的決定。
[03:27.73]Three aspects of organization structure can be mixed and matched to create various organization designs.
[03:32.09]組織結構的三個方面通過不同搭配和組合就產生了組織設計的多樣性。
[03:36.45]Managers must design an organization structure that allows them to effectively and efficiently11 accomplish organization goals and objectives.
[03:42.45]管理者必須設計一個能高效地實現組織宗旨和目標的恰當的組織結構。
[03:48.44]Designing an appropriate structure means that managers must decide how to coordinate work activities and efforts both vertically12 and horizontally.
[03:54.25]設計一個恰當的組織結構,意味著管理者必須決定職員在工作中無論縱向還是橫向怎樣才能團結奮進,精誠合作。
[04:00.07]A subordinate should have one and only one superior to whom he or she is directly responsible.
[04:03.88]一個下屬只能向惟一的上級主管直接負責。
[04:07.69]Otherwise,a subordinate might have to cope with conflicting demands or priorities from several managers.
[04:11.52]否則,他可能要應付來自不同上級互相沖突的要求或優先處理的命令。
[04:15.35]Authority relates to one's position within an oranization and ignores the personal characteristics of the individual manager.
[04:19.97]在組織中,一定的職權與一定的職位相聯系,而與管理者本身無直接關系。
[04:24.59]The terms authority and powers are frequently confused.
[04:26.80]職權和權力的概念經常混淆。
[04:29.01]Authority is a legitimate13 right that's held because of a person's position in an organization.
[04:32.55]職權是一個因為在組織中的地位而擁有的法定的權力。
[04:36.09]Authority goes with the job.
[04:37.51]職權與職務相伴而生。
[04:38.94]In contrast,power refers to an individual's capacity to influence decisions.
[04:42.31]相比之下,權力是指一個人影響決策的能力。
[04:45.68]Authority is one part of the large concept of power.
[04:47.99]職權是廣義的權力的一部分。
[04:50.30]Since more and more organizations are reducing the members of managerial position through downsizing and restructuring,
[04:55.14]越來越多的組織通過減少規模和調整結構來減少管理職位,
[04:59.99]we find that spans of control are generally increasing for managers.
[05:02.81]我們發現相應地管理跨度擴大了。
[05:05.63]For instance,it's obvious that the more training and experience subordinates have,the less direct supervision14 they'll need.
[05:10.27]顯而易見,如果下級受過越多培訓,具備越多經驗,那么他們需要的直接監管就越少。
[05:14.91]Managers who have well_trained and experienced employees can function quite well with a wider span.
[05:19.36]受過良好訓練和更多管理下屬經驗的管理者,他們能以更寬的管理跨度有效工作。
[05:23.81]The recent shift toward more decentralization of decision making reflects
[05:26.73]最近決策制定的分權化趨勢,反映出對于一個管理者來說,
[05:29.64]how important it is for managers to respond quickly and effectively to environmental changes.
[05:33.31]能對環境變化做出快速有效的反應是非常重要的。
[05:36.98]Functional departmentalization was advocated by the classical writers
[05:39.30]古典學者們仍然提倡使用職能部門化法,
[05:41.63]although the method or methods used should reflect the grouping that would best contribute to the attainment15 of the organization's objectives and the goals of individual units.
[05:47.43]盡管應該選擇最有利于實現組織目標和單位目標的部門化方法。
[05:53.23]Today's competitive environment has refocused the attention of management to its customers.
[05:56.28]當今的競爭環境迫使管理者的注意力再度回到顧客身上。
[05:59.34]To better monitor the needs of customers and to be able to respond to changes in those needs,many organizations have given greater emphasis to customer departmentalization.
[06:05.77]許多組織非常重視顧客部門化方式,以便更好地監測顧客的需求,并在需求改變時能對此做出迅速的反應。
[06:12.19]To better monitor the needs of customers and to be able to respond to changes in those needs,
[06:15.37]許多組織非常重視顧客部門化方式,以便更好地監測顧客的需求,
[06:18.54]many organizations have given greater emphasis to customer departmentalization.
[06:21.40]并在需求改變時能對此做了迅速的反應。
[06:24.26]customer departmentalization
[06:25.59]顧客部門化
[06:26.93]The organic organization is a highly adaptive structure that's as loose and flexible as the mechanistic organization is rigid16 and stable.
[06:32.52]與機械式組織的呆板而穩定相反,有機式組織是一種松散而靈活且具有高度適應性的組織結構。
[06:38.11]Rather than having standardized17 jobs and regulations,the adhocracy's loose structure allows it to change rapidly as needs require.
[06:43.92]它沒有標準化的工作和規則條例,因此能夠在需要時迅速改變。
[06:49.73]Since objectives are derived18 from the organization's overall strategy,
[06:51.96]因為目標來源于組織的總體戰略,
[06:54.20]it's only logical that strategy and structure should be closely linked.
[06:56.63]所以戰略和結構密切相關。
[06:59.06]More specifically,structure follows strategy.If management significantly changes its strategy,it will need to modify the structure to accommodate and support this change.
[07:06.66]特別是結構應服務戰略,如果管理方面要改變戰略,那么結構也必須作出相應調整以適應和支持改變了的戰略。
[07:14.26]Large organizations tend to have more specialization,horizontal and vertical differentiation,and rules and regulations than do small organizations.
[07:20.06]規模大的組織一般比規模小的組織具有更高的專業化程序,更細的橫向或縱向分工和更多的規章條例。
[07:25.86]We should expect management to structure routine technologies with mechanistic organization.
[07:29.32]我們希望管理者將程序化程度高的技術與機械式組織匹配。
[07:32.78]The more non_routine the technology,the more organic the structure should be.
[07:35.48]程序化程度低的技術與有機式組織相匹配。
[07:38.19]Essentially,mechanistic organizations are most effective for Stable environments.
[07:41.40]事實上,機械式組織在穩定的環境中最有效。
[07:44.61]Organic organizations are best matched with dynamic and uncertain environments.
[07:47.74]而有機式組織在動態的、不確定的環境下最有效。
[07:50.86]The strength of simple structure are obvious;
[07:52.32]簡單結構的優點是顯而易見的;
[07:53.78]it's fast,flexible,and inexpensive to maintain,and its accountability is clear.
[07:57.35]它反應迅速、靈活、成本低、職責明確。
[08:00.91]It becomes increasingly inadequate19 as an organization grows because its low formalization and high centralization result in information overload20 at the top.
[08:07.39]在組織規模擴大時,它的低正規化程度和高集權化程度會導致高層信息超載,此時它就會變得日益不適。
[08:13.87]Few organizations today can treat change as the occasional disturbance21 in an otherwise calm and stable world.
[08:18.78]現在的組織很少會把變革看作是一種和平環境中的偶然騷亂。
[08:23.69]Those that do,are running a great risk.
[08:25.38]這樣做的組織是在冒險。
[08:27.06]Too much is changing too fast for any organization or its managers to be complacent22.
[08:30.18]任何組織和管理者在太多太快的變化而面前都不能對自己的成績沾沾自喜。
[08:33.31]Most competitive advantages last only a short time often less than eighteen months.
[08:36.39]因為競爭優勢會瞬間即逝,一般保持不了一年半的時間。
[08:39.47]As change agents,managers should be motivated to initiate23 change because they're committed to improving their organization's effectiveness.
[08:45.18]因為管理者的責任是提高組織的效益,所以作為改革的推動者,他們應該積極地發動變革。


點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 timing rgUzGC     
n.時間安排,時間選擇
參考例句:
  • The timing of the meeting is not convenient.會議的時間安排不合適。
  • The timing of our statement is very opportune.我們發表聲明選擇的時機很恰當。
2 contractor GnZyO     
n.訂約人,承包人,收縮肌
參考例句:
  • The Tokyo contractor was asked to kick $ 6000 back as commission.那個東京的承包商被要求退還6000美元作為傭金。
  • The style of house the contractor builds depends partly on the lay of the land.承包商所建房屋的式樣,有幾分要看地勢而定。
3 labor P9Tzs     
n.勞動,努力,工作,勞工;分娩;vi.勞動,努力,苦干;vt.詳細分析;麻煩
參考例句:
  • We are never late in satisfying him for his labor.我們從不延誤付給他勞動報酬。
  • He was completely spent after two weeks of hard labor.艱苦勞動兩周后,他已經疲憊不堪了。
4 complexity KO9z3     
n.復雜(性),復雜的事物
參考例句:
  • Only now did he understand the full complexity of the problem.直到現在他才明白這一問題的全部復雜性。
  • The complexity of the road map puzzled me.錯綜復雜的公路圖把我搞糊涂了。
5 differentiation wuozfs     
n.區別,區分
參考例句:
  • There can be no differentiation without contrast. 有比較才有差別。
  • The operation that is the inverse of differentiation is called integration. 與微分相反的運算叫做積分。
6 vertical ZiywU     
adj.垂直的,頂點的,縱向的;n.垂直物,垂直的位置
參考例句:
  • The northern side of the mountain is almost vertical.這座山的北坡幾乎是垂直的。
  • Vertical air motions are not measured by this system.垂直氣流的運動不用這種系統來測量。
7 hierarchy 7d7xN     
n.等級制度;統治集團,領導層
參考例句:
  • There is a rigid hierarchy of power in that country.那個國家有一套嚴密的權力等級制度。
  • She's high up in the management hierarchy.她在管理階層中地位很高。
8 geographically mg6xa     
adv.地理學上,在地理上,地理方面
參考例句:
  • Geographically, the UK is on the periphery of Europe. 從地理位置上講,英國處于歐洲邊緣。 來自辭典例句
  • All these events, however geographically remote, urgently affected Western financial centers. 所有這些事件,無論發生在地理上如何遙遠的地方,都對西方金融中心產生緊迫的影響。 來自名作英譯部分
9 dispersed b24c637ca8e58669bce3496236c839fa     
adj. 被驅散的, 被分散的, 散布的
參考例句:
  • The clouds dispersed themselves. 云散了。
  • After school the children dispersed to their homes. 放學后,孩子們四散回家了。
10 coordinate oohzt     
adj.同等的,協調的;n.同等者;vt.協作,協調
參考例句:
  • You must coordinate what you said with what you did.你必須使你的言行一致。
  • Maybe we can coordinate the relation of them.或許我們可以調和他們之間的關系。
11 efficiently ZuTzXQ     
adv.高效率地,有能力地
參考例句:
  • The worker oils the machine to operate it more efficiently.工人給機器上油以使機器運轉更有效。
  • Local authorities have to learn to allocate resources efficiently.地方政府必須學會有效地分配資源。
12 vertically SfmzYG     
adv.垂直地
參考例句:
  • Line the pages for the graph both horizontally and vertically.在這幾頁上同時畫上橫線和豎線,以便制作圖表。
  • The human brain is divided vertically down the middle into two hemispheres.人腦從中央垂直地分為兩半球。
13 legitimate L9ZzJ     
adj.合法的,合理的,合乎邏輯的;v.使合法
參考例句:
  • Sickness is a legitimate reason for asking for leave.生病是請假的一個正當的理由。
  • That's a perfectly legitimate fear.懷有這種恐懼完全在情理之中。
14 supervision hr6wv     
n.監督,管理
參考例句:
  • The work was done under my supervision.這項工作是在我的監督之下完成的。
  • The old man's will was executed under the personal supervision of the lawyer.老人的遺囑是在律師的親自監督下執行的。
15 attainment Dv3zY     
n.達到,到達;[常pl.]成就,造詣
參考例句:
  • We congratulated her upon her attainment to so great an age.我們祝賀她高壽。
  • The attainment of the success is not easy.成功的取得并不容易。
16 rigid jDPyf     
adj.嚴格的,死板的;剛硬的,僵硬的
參考例句:
  • She became as rigid as adamant.她變得如頑石般的固執。
  • The examination was so rigid that nearly all aspirants were ruled out.考試很嚴,幾乎所有的考生都被淘汰了。
17 standardized 8hHzgs     
adj.標準化的
參考例句:
  • We use standardized tests to measure scholastic achievement. 我們用標準化考試來衡量學生的學業成績。
  • The parts of an automobile are standardized. 汽車零件是標準化了的。
18 derived 6cddb7353e699051a384686b6b3ff1e2     
vi.起源;由來;衍生;導出v.得到( derive的過去式和過去分詞 );(從…中)得到獲得;源于;(從…中)提取
參考例句:
  • Many English words are derived from Latin and Greek. 英語很多詞源出于拉丁文和希臘文。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • He derived his enthusiasm for literature from his father. 他對文學的愛好是受他父親的影響。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
19 inadequate 2kzyk     
adj.(for,to)不充足的,不適當的
參考例句:
  • The supply is inadequate to meet the demand.供不應求。
  • She was inadequate to the demands that were made on her.她還無力滿足對她提出的各項要求。
20 overload RmHz40     
vt.使超載;n.超載
參考例句:
  • Don't overload the boat or it will sink.別超載,否則船會沉。
  • Large meals overload the digestive system.吃得太飽會加重消化系統的負擔。
21 disturbance BsNxk     
n.動亂,騷動;打擾,干擾;(身心)失調
參考例句:
  • He is suffering an emotional disturbance.他的情緒受到了困擾。
  • You can work in here without any disturbance.在這兒你可不受任何干擾地工作。
22 complacent JbzyW     
adj.自滿的;自鳴得意的
參考例句:
  • We must not become complacent the moment we have some success.我們決不能一見成績就自滿起來。
  • She was complacent about her achievements.她對自己的成績沾沾自喜。
23 initiate z6hxz     
vt.開始,創始,發動;啟蒙,使入門;引入
參考例句:
  • A language teacher should initiate pupils into the elements of grammar.語言老師應該把基本語法教給學生。
  • They wanted to initiate a discussion on economics.他們想啟動一次經濟學討論。
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