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工商管理英語Chapter3 領導

時間:2006-01-08 16:00來源:互聯網 提供網友:zhx821120   字體: [ ]
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    (單詞翻譯:雙擊或拖選)

  [00:00.00]budget    vt.      n.
[00:00.59]預算,     預算
[00:01.18]figure     vt.     n.
[00:01.68]描繪,    圖形
[00:02.19]marketing1    n.
[00:02.93]銷售
[00:03.66]production    n.
[00:04.39]產品
[00:05.12]investment    n.
[00:05.93]投資
[00:06.74]P:Right,let's get started.Now,you've all seen the budget proposals for next year.
[00:10.16]行,我們開始吧。好,你們都看了明年的預算計劃。
[00:13.58]Have you got anything to say?
[00:14.47]有什么意見嗎?
[00:15.36]J:I think the research figure is too low.
[00:16.59]我認為研究費用太低。
[00:17.82]We should increase it by at least 5%.
[00:19.46]至少應該增加5%。
[00:21.11]P:Well,we could do that,but it means less money for the other departments.
[00:23.47]嗯,是可以增加,不過那就意味著撥給別的部門的資金就要減少了。
[00:25.84]I think it should stay the same.
[00:26.89]我認為它應該維持不變。
[00:27.95]S:I agree with John.
[00:28.83]我同意約翰的看法。
[00:29.70]We could reduce the figure for marketing that could allow us to increase the budget for research.
[00:33.28]我們可以減少市場營運的金額,這樣就有可能增加科研預算了。
[00:36.86]P:I felt marketing needed a good figure this year.
[00:38.73]我覺得市場營運今年需要大量金額。
[00:40.59]They've got a big launch mid_year,I think they couldn't manage with less.
[00:43.59]年中他們要投放大量產品,資金少了恐怕很難辦。
[00:46.58]J:I'm sure they could and...
[00:47.62]我確信他們有可能而且……
[00:48.67]P:Just a moment.Let's look at the other two department budgets.
[00:50.70]等等,我們先來看看其他兩個部門的預算。
[00:52.74]That's production and sales.
[00:54.05]也就是生產部和銷售部的預算情況。
[00:55.35]J:Well,we can't cut the production budget,that's for sure.I don't know about sales.
[00:58.79]哦,生產的預算沒法減,這是肯定的。銷售的情況我不清楚。
[01:02.22]S:Why do you say we can't cut production's budget?
[01:04.05]為什么不能削減生產部的預算?
[01:05.88]They had a big investment last year.Well,surely they could manage on less this year?
[01:08.99]去年撥給他們的投資量很大。那么今年少撥點資金肯定不成問題吧?
[01:12.10]P:Yes,I think I agree.Production ought to manage with less this year,having spent so much last year.
[01:16.64]對,我想是這樣。生產部去年花了那么多錢,今年少投些資應該沒問題。
[01:21.19]S:A small cut in the production budget might mean we could increase the research figure.
[01:23.87]稍微削減些生產預算就可增加科研金額。
[01:26.54]P:Right,I'll put that to the production manager.Finally,what about sales?
[01:29.20]對,我把這想法和生產部經理談談。最后,銷售部的預算呢?
[01:31.85]S:I think it's a bit high.They might save a bit by spending less on the after_sales side.
[01:35.60]我認為還是高了些,他們可以通過在售后環節上減少些花費來節省開支。
[01:39.34]P:John,any views?
[01:40.35]約翰,你有什么看法?
[01:41.36]J:Well,I think we should spend more on sales.
[01:43.01]啊,我覺得銷售的預算應該更多些。
[01:44.67]P:That's out of the question.The figure shouldn't be changed.
[01:46.53]這是不可能的。這個數目不應該改動了。
[01:48.38]motivation     n.
[01:49.13]激勵
[01:49.87]need theories
[01:50.64]需求理論
[01:51.41]two_factor theory
[01:52.17]雙因素理論
[01:52.93]content theories
[01:53.70]內容型理論
[01:54.47]valence    n.
[01:55.10]效價
[01:55.72]equity2 theory
[01:56.38]公平理論
[01:57.03]positive reinforcement
[01:57.92]正強化
[01:58.80]negative reinforcement
[01:59.78]負強化
[02:00.76]punishment
[02:01.34]懲罰
[02:01.91]information power
[02:02.75]信息權力
[02:03.59]traits     n.
[02:04.15]特質
[02:04.71]autocratic    adj.
[02:05.37]專制型
[02:06.04]democratic   adj.
[02:06.67]民主型
[02:07.29]laissez_faire   adj.
[02:07.95]放任型
[02:08.60]employee_centered
[02:09.31]以員工為中心
[02:10.01]job_centered
[02:10.66]以工作為中心
[02:11.32]the managerial grid3
[02:12.14]管理方格圖
[02:12.96]situational theories
[02:13.97]情境理論
[02:14.97]Leading involves influencing the work behavior of others toward achieving organizational goals.
[02:19.02]領導是指通過影響其他人的工作行為來實現組織目標。
[02:23.07]Need theories argue that we behave the way we do because of internal needs we are attempting to fulfill4.
[02:27.25]需求理論認為,我們試圖滿足的內在需求,決定我們行為的方式。
[02:31.43]Need theories are sometimes called content theories of motivation because they specify5 what motivates individuals.
[02:35.74]需求理論具體指出刺激個人行為的因素,所以有時稱為內在的激勵理論。
[02:40.05]If we are continually frustrated6 in our attempts to satisfy a higher_level need,we may cease to be concerned about that need.
[02:44.86]如果對較高層次需求滿足的嘗試不斷受挫,我們可能會停止考慮那種需求。
[02:49.67]Managers need to be particularly concerned with providing opportunities to satisfy growth needs,
[02:53.27]主管人員需要特別考慮提供能滿足成長需求的機會,
[02:56.88]lest employees cease to be interested in them.
[02:58.32]以免員工終止對它們的興趣。
[02:59.77]Needs at the highest level are never completely fulfilled,because as we work to develop our capabilities,both our potential and our needs for self_actualization grow stronger.
[03:07.22]當我們工作而使我們的能力得到發展時,我們的潛力和對自我實現的需求同時增強,因此我們對最高層次的需求永遠得不到完全滿足。
[03:14.66]Motivators are the factors that seem to make individuals feel satisfied with their jobs.
[03:17.54]激勵因素是使個人對工作感覺滿意的因素。
[03:20.41]Hygiene7 factors are the factors that seem to make individuals feel dissatisfied with their jobs.
[03:23.56]保健因素是使個人對工作感覺不滿意的因素。
[03:26.71]Herzberg's two_factor theory argues that hygiene factors are necessary to keep workers from feeling dissatisfied,
[03:31.25]赫茨伯格的雙因素理論認為,為了保證工人能工作沒有不滿意,保健因素是必要的:
[03:35.80]but only motivators can lead workers to feel satisfied and motivated.
[03:38.31]但只有激勵因素能夠使工人感覺滿意并得到激勵。
[03:40.81]Existence needs include physiological8 desires,such as food and water.
[03:43.46]生存需求包括生理需要(如食物和水)
[03:46.12]and work_related material desires,such as pay,fringe benefits,and physical working conditions.
[03:49.52]和與工作相關的物質需要(如工資,津貼和工作條作)。
[03:52.93]Relation needs address our relationships with significant others,
[03:55.26]關系需求說明我們與其他重要因素之間的關系,
[03:57.58]such as families,friendship groups,work groups,and professional groups.
[04:00.37]例如家庭、友誼群體、工作群體和職業群體。
[04:03.15]Growth needs impel9 creativity and innovation,along with the desire to have a productive impact on our surrounding
[04:07.72]增長需求激發我們的創造力和革新性,以及對周圍產生巨大影響的愿望
[04:12.29]Need for achievement is the desire to accomplish challenging tasks to achieve an important goal.
[04:16.01]權力需求是影響他們并控制其周圍環境的欲望。
[04:19.74]We assess the probability that our efforts will lead to the required performance level.The probability is called effort_performance expectancy10.
[04:25.31]我們把通過努力能達到的績效水平稱為努力績效期望值。
[04:30.89]We assess the probability that successful performance will lead to certain outcomes.The probability is called performance_outcome expectancy.
[04:36.38]我們把成功的績效所能導致的一定結果的概率,稱為績效結果期望值。
[04:41.86]We assess the probability that our successful performance will lead to certain outcomes.The probability is called per_Formance_outcome expectancy.
[04:46.72]我們把成功的績效所能導致的一定結果的概率,稱為績效結果期望值。
[04:51.58]Performance_outcome expectancy
[04:52.66]績效結果期望值
[04:53.75]We assess the anticipated value of various of outcomes.The value is called valence.
[04:56.84]我們把各種結果的期望價值稱為效價。
[04:59.94]Equity theory argues that we prefer situations of balance,or equity,
[05:02.67]公平理論認為,人們傾向平衡或者公平的情形。
[05:05.40]which exist when we perceive the ratio of our inputs11 and outcomes to be equal to the ratio of inputs and outcomes for a comparable other.
[05:10.87]這種情形只有當我們認為自己的付出與結果的比率與其他作為比較的人的付出與結果的比率相等時才存在。
[05:16.34]In particular,goals should be specific and measurable,challenging,attainable,relevant to the major work of the organization,and time_limited.
[05:21.57]特別地,目標應該是具體、可衡量的、競爭性的、可達到的、與組織的主要工作相關的,并且有時間限制。
[05:26.79]Positive reinforcement encourages individual growth,
[05:28.63]正強化激勵個人成長,
[05:30.48]whereas negative reinforcement and punishment are likely to foster immaturity12 in individuals
[05:33.82]相對而言,負強化與懲罰則可能培養個人的不成熟度,
[05:37.16]and eventually contaminate the entire organization.
[05:39.23]并最終對整個組織造成不良影響。
[05:41.29]Aimed at increasing a desired behavior,
[05:42.83]為了增強所希望的行為,
[05:44.37]positive reinforcement involves providing a pleasant,rewarding consequence to encourage that behavior.
[05:48.37]正強化采取提供愉快、獎勵的措施去激勵那種行為。
[05:52.37]Negative reinforcement involves providing noxious13(unpleasant)stimulus14
[05:54.94]負強化采取提供令人不愉快的刺激物,
[05:57.51]so that an individual will engage in the desired behavior in order to stop the noxious stimulus.
[06:01.12]使個人愿意從事所需要的行為來停止不愉快的刺激。
[06:04.72]Power is the capacity to affect the behavior of others.
[06:06.99]權力是指影響他人行為的能力。
[06:09.27]Legitimate power stems from a position's placement in the man agerial hierarchy15 and the authority vested in the position.
[06:14.18]法定權力來源于管理階層等級鏈中的位置安排和位置所賦予的權威。
[06:19.09]Reward power is based on the capacity to control and provide valued rewards to others.
[06:22.67]獎賞權力基于對他人進行控制和提供獎賞的能力。
[06:26.25]Coercive power depends on the ability to punish others when they do not engage in desired behavior.
[06:29.90]當他人不從事所要求的行為,對其進行懲罰表現為強制權力。
[06:33.56]Expert power is based on the possession of expertise16 that is valued by others.
[06:36.55]專家權力建立于擁有專長的基礎之上,這種專長被他們認為是有價值的。
[06:39.54]Information power results from access to and control over the distribution of important information about organizational operations and future plans.
[06:45.58]信息的力量取決于能夠傳播并控制與組織運行和制定未來計劃有關的重要信息分布的渠道。
[06:51.61]Research turned away from the trait approach in the 1950s when extensive reviews of various studies suggested there were no traits that consistently distinguished17 leaders from non_leaders.
[06:59.40]在20世紀50年代,各種研究普遍認為沒有一致的特質來區分領導者和非領導者,研究不再使用特質這一方法。
[07:07.18]Many management experts believe that performance is more closely related to the things leaders actually do than to the traits they possess.
[07:12.04]許多管理專家相信,績效與領導實際所做事情的關系比績效與領導所擁有的特質的關系更加緊密。
[07:16.90]Autocratic leaders tend to make unilateral decisions,dictate work methods,
[07:19.97]專制型領導者傾向于單方面做出決策,支配工作方法,
[07:23.04]limit worker's knowledge about goals to just the next step to be performed,
[07:25.90]限制工人對目標的了解(使他們僅僅了解下一目標),
[07:28.76]and sometimes give punitive18 feedback.
[07:30.19]有時給予懲罰性的反饋。
[07:31.63]Democratic leaders tend to involve the group in decision making,
[07:33.79]民主型領導者傾向于群體參與制定決策,
[07:35.94]let the group determine work methods,make overall goals known.
[07:38.67]讓群體決定工作方法,使工人了解全部目標,
[07:41.40]and use feedback as an opportunity for helpful coaching.
[07:43.82]并把反饋作為有助于指導工作的機會。
[07:46.23]Laissez_faire leaders generally give the group complete freedom,provide necessary materials,
[07:50.94]放任型領導者總體來說給予群體完全的自由,提供必要的物質,
[07:55.64]participate only to answer questions,and avoid giving feed_back,in other words.
[07:58.60]僅僅參與回答問題,并且避免給予反饋
[08:01.57]they do almost nothing,and instead,just keep out of the way.
[08:03.63]換言之,他們幾乎什么事情都不做。
[08:05.69]With the employee_centered approach,leaders focused on building effective work groups dedicated19 to high performance goals.
[08:11.48]如果運用以員工為中心的方法,領導者強調營造有效的工作群體,以實現高效的目標。
[08:17.27]With the job_centered approach,leaders divided the work into routine tasks
[08:19.74]運用以工作為中心的方法,領導者把工作細分類為各種日常工作,
[08:22.20]and closely supervised workers to ensure that the prescribed mathods were followed and that productivity standards were met.
[08:26.64]并密切監督工人能否確保執行規定方法和達到生產率標準,
[08:31.09]The managerial grid,developed by Blake and Mouton,
[08:32.76]由布萊克和莫頓兩人提出的管理方格圖,
[08:34.43]uses parallel leader attitudes_concern for people and concern for production.
[08:37.68]運用了領導者并行的態度在對員工的關心和對生產的關心上。
[08:40.93]The managerial grid,developed by Blake and Mouton,uses parallel leader attitudes_concern for people and concern for production.
[08:45.11]由布萊克和莫頓兩人提出的管理方格圖,運用了領導者并行的態度對員工的關心和對生產的關心。
[08:49.29]The Managerial Grid
[08:50.19]管理方格圖


點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 marketing Boez7e     
n.行銷,在市場的買賣,買東西
參考例句:
  • They are developing marketing network.他們正在發展銷售網絡。
  • He often goes marketing.他經常去市場做生意。
2 equity ji8zp     
n.公正,公平,(無固定利息的)股票
參考例句:
  • They shared the work of the house with equity.他們公平地分擔家務。
  • To capture his equity,Murphy must either sell or refinance.要獲得資產凈值,墨菲必須出售或者重新融資。
3 grid 5rPzpK     
n.高壓輸電線路網;地圖坐標方格;格柵
參考例句:
  • In this application,the carrier is used to encapsulate the grid.在這種情況下,要用載體把格柵密封起來。
  • Modern gauges consist of metal foil in the form of a grid.現代應變儀則由網格形式的金屬片組成。
4 fulfill Qhbxg     
vt.履行,實現,完成;滿足,使滿意
參考例句:
  • If you make a promise you should fulfill it.如果你許諾了,你就要履行你的諾言。
  • This company should be able to fulfill our requirements.這家公司應該能夠滿足我們的要求。
5 specify evTwm     
vt.指定,詳細說明
參考例句:
  • We should specify a time and a place for the meeting.我們應指定會議的時間和地點。
  • Please specify what you will do.請你詳述一下你將做什么。
6 frustrated ksWz5t     
adj.挫敗的,失意的,泄氣的v.使不成功( frustrate的過去式和過去分詞 );挫敗;使受挫折;令人沮喪
參考例句:
  • It's very easy to get frustrated in this job. 這個工作很容易令人懊惱。
  • The bad weather frustrated all our hopes of going out. 惡劣的天氣破壞了我們出行的愿望。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
7 hygiene Kchzr     
n.健康法,衛生學 (a.hygienic)
參考例句:
  • Their course of study includes elementary hygiene and medical theory.他們的課程包括基礎衛生學和醫療知識。
  • He's going to give us a lecture on public hygiene.他要給我們作關于公共衛生方面的報告。
8 physiological aAvyK     
adj.生理學的,生理學上的
參考例句:
  • He bought a physiological book.他買了一本生理學方面的書。
  • Every individual has a physiological requirement for each nutrient.每個人對每種營養成分都有一種生理上的需要。
9 impel NaLxG     
v.推動;激勵,迫使
參考例句:
  • Financial pressures impel the firm to cut back on spending.財政壓力迫使公司減少開支。
  • The progress in science and technical will powerfully impel the education's development.科學和技術的進步將有力地推動教育的發展。
10 expectancy tlMys     
n.期望,預期,(根據概率統計求得)預期數額
參考例句:
  • Japanese people have a very high life expectancy.日本人的平均壽命非常長。
  • The atomosphere of tense expectancy sobered everyone.這種期望的緊張氣氛使每個人變得嚴肅起來。
11 inputs a8aff967e1649a1c82ea607c881e8091     
n.輸入( input的名詞復數 );投入;輸入端;輸入的數據v.把…輸入電腦( input的第三人稱單數 )
參考例句:
  • Uncheck the inputs checked for optimization in the previous stage. 不測試那些已經測試過的優化了的以前步驟的inputs.(變量參數)。 來自互聯網
  • Just in case, save in a file the inputs obtained at the previous stage. 以防萬一,保存以前步驟獲得的inputs(變量參數值)到一個文件中去。 來自互聯網
12 immaturity 779396dd776272b5ff34c0218a6c4aba     
n.不成熟;未充分成長;未成熟;粗糙
參考例句:
  • It traces the development of a young man from immaturity to maturity. 它描寫一位青年從不成熟到成熟的發展過程。 來自辭典例句
  • Immaturity is the inability to use one's understanding without guidance from another. 不成熟就是不經他人的指引就無法運用自身的理解力。 來自互聯網
13 noxious zHOxB     
adj.有害的,有毒的;使道德敗壞的,討厭的
參考例句:
  • Heavy industry pollutes our rivers with noxious chemicals.重工業產生的有毒化學品會污染我們的河流。
  • Many household products give off noxious fumes.很多家用產品散發有害氣體。
14 stimulus 3huyO     
n.刺激,刺激物,促進因素,引起興奮的事物
參考例句:
  • Regard each failure as a stimulus to further efforts.把每次失利看成對進一步努力的激勵。
  • Light is a stimulus to growth in plants.光是促進植物生長的一個因素。
15 hierarchy 7d7xN     
n.等級制度;統治集團,領導層
參考例句:
  • There is a rigid hierarchy of power in that country.那個國家有一套嚴密的權力等級制度。
  • She's high up in the management hierarchy.她在管理階層中地位很高。
16 expertise fmTx0     
n.專門知識(或技能等),專長
參考例句:
  • We were amazed at his expertise on the ski slopes.他斜坡滑雪的技能使我們贊嘆不已。
  • You really have the technical expertise in a new breakthrough.讓你真正在專業技術上有一個全新的突破。
17 distinguished wu9z3v     
adj.卓越的,杰出的,著名的
參考例句:
  • Elephants are distinguished from other animals by their long noses.大象以其長長的鼻子顯示出與其他動物的不同。
  • A banquet was given in honor of the distinguished guests.宴會是為了向貴賓們致敬而舉行的。
18 punitive utey6     
adj.懲罰的,刑罰的
參考例句:
  • They took punitive measures against the whole gang.他們對整幫人采取懲罰性措施。
  • The punitive tariff was imposed to discourage tire imports from China.該懲罰性關稅的征收是用以限制中國輪胎進口的措施。
19 dedicated duHzy2     
adj.一心一意的;獻身的;熱誠的
參考例句:
  • He dedicated his life to the cause of education.他獻身于教育事業。
  • His whole energies are dedicated to improve the design.他的全部精力都放在改進這項設計上了。
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