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西方會計英語Unit seven Sources and applications of fun

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[00:04.78]text 7.1      Funds inflow and outfl
[00:10.27]Sources and uses of fun
[00:12.77]The sources and uses of funds can be set out as follow
[00:16.30](a)  funds generated by trading operations, cash received from sales net of cash paid out for expenses ( the term cash flow is sometimes given to this amount
[00:28.94](b) funds injected into the business on a long-term basis;issues of shares plus any premium1 received on issue,debentures2 and other long-term loan
[00:41.40](c) funds released from long-term applications for use elsewhere in the business;sales of fixed3  assets such as land,buildings ,plant and vehicles;loans to subsidiary companies repaid by the
[00:56.01](d) funds lent to the business on a short-term basis; trade creditors;bank loans and overdrafts;amounts payable5 to the Inland Revenue;bills of exchange payabl
[01:08.73]Uses:(a) funds lost in trading operations,i.e.when the payment of expenses exceeds receipts from sale
[01:18.71](b)  funds used to acquire permanent assets such as land,buildings ,plant,vehicles, fixtures  and fittings and long-term investment
[01:27.90](c) funds paid away outside the business to repay debentures and loan stock,or to redeem6 share capita
[01:35.56](d)funds invested outside the business in loans made to subsidiary companie
[01:41.98](e) funds used to acquire assets of a short_term nature,stocks of material,work in progress and finished goods;
[01:50.60]trade credit allowed to debtors8 who have not yet paid for goods sold to them;
[01:55.02]short-them investments as a temporary repository of idle funds;bills of exchange receivable.
[02:02.12]Note that already with this simple analysis shown above items concerning funds moved into and out of the business on a long-term basis are being mixed in with short-term movement
[02:13.22]and source and applicatioin of funds from changes in the asset structur
[02:17.93]The funds generated by trading operations can be computed9 as in sources (a) above
[02:24.85]but an alternative method of calculating the same figure is to take the net profit before tax and add back all non-cash costs that have been deducted10 in the profit calculatio
[02:35.92]A good example of a cost which has not caused an outflow of cash during the year is depreciation11,because it is a means of spreading over a period of years the cash spent when a fixed asset was originally purchase
[02:49.43]The term cash flow is often used for net profit plus depreciation and any other non-cash costs identified during the yea
[02:58.00]If sources exceed uses there will be a balance of cash representing funds provided but not yet put to use in the busines
[03:06.17]The capital employed in figure 1 acts as a reservoir into which funds flow from four major stream
[03:13.80]The funds are then tapped off as a result of managerial decisions to irrigate12 the five fields shown ,and any funds remaining in the reservoir will be represented by the bank balanc
[03:24.98]If ,however,uses exceed sources, the reservoir will run dry and ,unless extra short-term credit can be arranged at short notic
[03:34.47]some of the users will not receive all the funds they need and the business will suffer as a resul
[03:39.98]Funds ,like water, can run in different directings, so funds from any source can be used to finance any use
[03:47.40]although it is imprudent to use short-term funds to acquire fixed assets, unless long-term funds will be raised to cover the position quickl
[03:56.04]Circumstances such as these would be highlighted in a funds flow statemen
[04:00.56]Funds flow stateme
[04:02.21]This statement has several alternative name
[04:05.08]Some accountants refer to it as a movement of funds statement,while to others it is source and application of funds statemen
[04:14.07]When projected forward from a recent balance sheet to a budgeted position is sometimes called a long-term cash budge13
[04:21.90]There are, of course, alternative forms of statement which express the flow of fund
[04:26.53]The statement is computed by finding the differences between the opening and closing balance sheets and arranging them in groups as illustrated14 in figure
[04:36.11]For example ,if the stock figure in the earlier balance sheet is deducted from stock in the later balance shee
[04:42.70]the extent of investment or disinvestment in stocks can be ascertaine
[04:47.22]The basic rule is that if an asset has increased during a period,this is an application of fund
[04:53.25]Whereas if an asset is reduced, this is counted as a source, since funds have been withdrawn15 from that asset for use in some other wa
[05:00.96]If a liability has increased, more funds have been loaned to the business and this is a source,but if a liability is reduced,funds have been applied16 to repay the liabilit
[05:12.27]The statement shows more than just the extra funds used during the year; it is extended to show changes in the way in which the funds are use
[05:21.44]Text 7.2     Preparing the source and application of funds stateme
[05:27.44]Heading
[05:28.78]Not all of expense charged to the profit and loss account will be represented by a cash outflow of fund
[05:36.43]For instance, any amount charged for depreciation or reduction in goodwill17 will not have involved the business in reducing its cash resource
[05:46.10]These payments are really a use or appropriation18 of profit and so the amount set aside must be added back to the profit before ta
[05:54.12]Similarly, certain items credited to the profit and loss account ,such as an overprovision for bad debts or a reduction in depreciatio
[06:03.00]will not have been represented by a cash inflow into the busines
[06:06.94]If this has been the case, the amount credited to the profit and loss account must be deducted from the retained profit figure because it does not represent a cash inflo
[06:16.95]Heading
[06:18.31]Sometimes when fixed term debt is sold or redeemed19, the amount of cash received or parted with may be more(premium) or less (discount) than the loan stock's nominal20 valu
[06:31.99]In either case the amount paid or received should be shown in the source and application of funds statement and a check should then be mad
[06:40.35]by referring to the nominal value of the loan stock in the balance sheet, to see whether a premium or discount has been incurred21 on its issue or redemptio
[06:49.47]Heading
[06:50.96]The business may have sold surplus fixed assets during the yea
[06:55.45]The sale price is unlikely to be the same as the assets'net book value as shown in the balance sheet.so the firm will have made either a profit or loss on the sal
[07:05.56]These profits or losses will have then been transferred to the firm's profit and loss accoun
[07:11.83]When preparing a source and application of funds statement, the profit from the sale should be deducted from the retained profit figure and any loss should be added to i
[07:21.50]The amount of money received from the sale must then be shown as a source of fund
[07:26.17]By doing this the statement will show the cash received from the sale and the profit made from tradin
[07:32.34]Heading
[07:33.80]Dividend22 and tax payments are always made in the following financial year (except for interim23 dividend
[07:41.58]Any opening balance for dividends24 or taxation25 in the opening balance sheet will be shown as an application in the source and application of funds statemen
[07:50.94]for it will have been paid during the last financial year, thereby26 reducing the firm's cash resource
[07:57.86]Similarly ,any proposed dividend or tax owing in the closing  balance sheet will not yet have been paid and so the amount will be added back to the before tax profit figur
[08:09.95]When these adjustments have been made ,the sources and applications of funds should be equa
[08:16.93]The next step is to distinguish between long and short terms sources of fund
[08:21.97]A source and application of funds statement follows the same principles as a balance shee
[08:27.72]and so anything which is not part of the current assets and current liabilities must be regarded as either a long term source or application of fund
[08:36.62]Heading
[08:38.32]The statement shows that during the year the firm's long term sources of funds were $ 96,000,of which $ 46,000 was generated by the firm,and the balance was received by an increase in share capita
[08:53.13]These funds were used to purchase additional fixed assets which, in total, cost $80,000,leaving a surplus of $ 16,00
[09:02.96]During the year the business has seen a deterioration27 in its liquidity28 positio
[09:08.44]At the year end more money has been invested in stock and the firm is owed more money from its debtor7
[09:14.79]In order to be able to finance trading the bank account has become overdrawn29 and there has been an increase in creditor4
[09:21.97]The increase in stocks and debtors has led to the deterioration in liquidity and, in the coming year
[09:28.14]stocks and debtors must be more effectively managed, releasing cash which can be used to repay the bank overdraft and the creditor


點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 premium EPSxX     
n.加付款;贈品;adj.高級的;售價高的
參考例句:
  • You have to pay a premium for express delivery.寄快遞你得付額外費用。
  • Fresh water was at a premium after the reservoir was contaminated.在水庫被污染之后,清水便因稀而貴了。
2 debentures 562ac96c0dd37532484d5a88ce061f3e     
n.公司債券( debenture的名詞復數 )
參考例句:
  • My money is invested in debentures. 我把錢用于買債券。 來自《現代漢英綜合大詞典》
  • Owners of debentures do not have voting rights. 信用債券的所有人沒有選擇權。 來自辭典例句
3 fixed JsKzzj     
adj.固定的,不變的,準備好的;(計算機)固定的
參考例句:
  • Have you two fixed on a date for the wedding yet?你們倆選定婚期了嗎?
  • Once the aim is fixed,we should not change it arbitrarily.目標一旦確定,我們就不應該隨意改變。
4 creditor tOkzI     
n.債僅人,債主,貸方
參考例句:
  • The boss assigned his car to his creditor.那工頭把自己的小汽車讓與了債權人。
  • I had to run away from my creditor whom I made a usurious loan.我借了高利貸不得不四處躲債。
5 payable EmdzUR     
adj.可付的,應付的,有利益的
參考例句:
  • This check is payable on demand.這是一張見票即付的支票。
  • No tax is payable on these earnings.這些收入不須交稅。
6 redeem zCbyH     
v.買回,贖回,挽回,恢復,履行(諾言等)
參考例句:
  • He had no way to redeem his furniture out of pawn.他無法贖回典當的家具。
  • The eyes redeem the face from ugliness.這雙眼睛彌補了他其貌不揚之缺陷。
7 debtor bxfxy     
n.借方,債務人
參考例句:
  • He crowded the debtor for payment.他催逼負債人還債。
  • The court granted me a lien on my debtor's property.法庭授予我對我債務人財產的留置權。
8 debtors 0fb9580949754038d35867f9c80e3c15     
n.債務人,借方( debtor的名詞復數 )
參考例句:
  • Creditors could obtain a writ for the arrest of their debtors. 債權人可以獲得逮捕債務人的令狀。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • Never in a debtors' prison? 從沒有因債務坐過牢么? 來自英漢文學 - 雙城記
9 computed 5a317d3dd3f7a2f675975a6d0c11c629     
adj.[醫]計算的,使用計算機的v.計算,估算( compute的過去式和過去分詞 )
參考例句:
  • He computed that the project would take seven years to complete. 他估計這項計劃要花七年才能完成。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • Resolving kernels and standard errors can also be computed for each block. 還可以計算每個塊體的分辨核和標準誤差。 來自辭典例句
10 deducted 0dc984071646e559dd56c3bd5451fd72     
v.扣除,減去( deduct的過去式和過去分詞 )
參考例句:
  • The cost of your uniform will be deducted from your wages. 制服費將從你的工資中扣除。
  • The cost of the breakages will be deducted from your pay. 損壞東西的費用將從你的工資中扣除。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
11 depreciation YuTzql     
n.價值低落,貶值,蔑視,貶低
參考例句:
  • She can't bear the depreciation of the enemy.她受不了敵人的蹂躪。
  • They wrote off 500 for depreciation of machinery.他們注銷了500鎊作為機器折舊費。
12 irrigate HRtzo     
vt.灌溉,修水利,沖洗傷口,使潮濕
參考例句:
  • The farmer dug several trenches to irrigate the rice fields.這個農民挖了好幾條溝以灌溉稻田。
  • They have built canals to irrigate the desert.他們建造成水渠以灌溉沙漠。
13 budge eSRy5     
v.移動一點兒;改變立場
參考例句:
  • We tried to lift the rock but it wouldn't budge.我們試圖把大石頭抬起來,但它連動都沒動一下。
  • She wouldn't budge on the issue.她在這個問題上不肯讓步。
14 illustrated 2a891807ad5907f0499171bb879a36aa     
adj. 有插圖的,列舉的 動詞illustrate的過去式和過去分詞
參考例句:
  • His lecture was illustrated with slides taken during the expedition. 他在講演中使用了探險時拍攝到的幻燈片。
  • The manufacturing Methods: Will be illustrated in the next chapter. 制作方法將在下一章說明。
15 withdrawn eeczDJ     
vt.收回;使退出;vi.撤退,退出
參考例句:
  • Our force has been withdrawn from the danger area.我們的軍隊已從危險地區撤出。
  • All foreign troops should be withdrawn to their own countries.一切外國軍隊都應撤回本國去。
16 applied Tz2zXA     
adj.應用的;v.應用,適用
參考例句:
  • She plans to take a course in applied linguistics.她打算學習應用語言學課程。
  • This cream is best applied to the face at night.這種乳霜最好晚上擦臉用。
17 goodwill 4fuxm     
n.善意,親善,信譽,聲譽
參考例句:
  • His heart is full of goodwill to all men.他心里對所有人都充滿著愛心。
  • We paid £10,000 for the shop,and £2000 for its goodwill.我們用一萬英鎊買下了這家商店,兩千英鎊買下了它的信譽。
18 appropriation ON7ys     
n.撥款,批準支出
參考例句:
  • Our government made an appropriation for the project.我們的政府為那個工程撥出一筆款項。
  • The council could note an annual appropriation for this service.議會可以為這項服務表決給他一筆常年經費。
19 redeemed redeemed     
adj. 可贖回的,可救贖的 動詞redeem的過去式和過去分詞形式
參考例句:
  • She has redeemed her pawned jewellery. 她贖回了當掉的珠寶。
  • He redeemed his watch from the pawnbroker's. 他從當鋪贖回手表。
20 nominal Y0Tyt     
adj.名義上的;(金額、租金)微不足道的
參考例句:
  • The king was only the nominal head of the state. 國王只是這個國家名義上的元首。
  • The charge of the box lunch was nominal.午餐盒飯收費很少。
21 incurred a782097e79bccb0f289640bab05f0f6c     
[醫]招致的,遭受的; incur的過去式
參考例句:
  • She had incurred the wrath of her father by marrying without his consent 她未經父親同意就結婚,使父親震怒。
  • We will reimburse any expenses incurred. 我們將付還所有相關費用。
22 dividend Fk7zv     
n.紅利,股息;回報,效益
參考例句:
  • The company was forced to pass its dividend.該公司被迫到期不分紅。
  • The first quarter dividend has been increased by nearly 4 per cent.第一季度的股息增長了近 4%。
23 interim z5wxB     
adj.暫時的,臨時的;n.間歇,過渡期間
參考例句:
  • The government is taking interim measures to help those in immediate need.政府正在采取臨時措施幫助那些有立即需要的人。
  • It may turn out to be an interim technology.這可能只是個過渡技術。
24 dividends 8d58231a4112c505163466a7fcf9d097     
紅利( dividend的名詞復數 ); 股息; 被除數; (足球彩票的)彩金
參考例句:
  • Nothing pays richer dividends than magnanimity. 沒有什么比寬宏大量更能得到厚報。
  • Their decision five years ago to computerise the company is now paying dividends. 五年前他們作出的使公司電腦化的決定現在正產生出效益。
25 taxation tqVwP     
n.征稅,稅收,稅金
參考例句:
  • He made a number of simplifications in the taxation system.他在稅制上作了一些簡化。
  • The increase of taxation is an important fiscal policy.增稅是一項重要的財政政策。
26 thereby Sokwv     
adv.因此,從而
參考例句:
  • I have never been to that city,,ereby I don't know much about it.我從未去過那座城市,因此對它不怎么熟悉。
  • He became a British citizen,thereby gaining the right to vote.他成了英國公民,因而得到了投票權。
27 deterioration yvvxj     
n.退化;惡化;變壞
參考例句:
  • Mental and physical deterioration both occur naturally with age. 隨著年齡的增長,心智和體力自然衰退。
  • The car's bodywork was already showing signs of deterioration. 這輛車的車身已經顯示出了劣化跡象。
28 liquidity VRXzb     
n.流動性,償債能力,流動資產
參考例句:
  • The bank has progressively increased its liquidity.銀行逐漸地增加其流動資產。
  • The demand for and the supply of credit is closely linked to changes in liquidity.信用的供求和流動資金的變化有密切關系。
29 overdrawn 4eb10eff40c3bcd30842eb8b379808ff     
透支( overdraw的過去分詞 ); (overdraw的過去分詞)
參考例句:
  • The characters in this novel are rather overdrawn. 這本小說中的人物描寫得有些夸張。
  • His account of the bank robbery is somewhat overdrawn. 他對銀行搶案的敘述有些夸張。
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