英語 英語 日語 日語 韓語 韓語 法語 法語 德語 德語 西班牙語 西班牙語 意大利語 意大利語 阿拉伯語 阿拉伯語 葡萄牙語 葡萄牙語 越南語 越南語 俄語 俄語 芬蘭語 芬蘭語 泰語 泰語 泰語 丹麥語 泰語 對外漢語

西方會計英語Unit nine Comparative accountin

時間:2005-12-30 16:00來源:互聯網 提供網友:bebttr   字體: [ ]
特別聲明:本欄目內容均從網絡收集或者網友提供,供僅參考試用,我們無法保證內容完整和正確。如果資料損害了您的權益,請與站長聯系,我們將及時刪除并致以歉意。
    (單詞翻譯:雙擊或拖選)

[00:03.45]Text 9.1  What are brands wort
[00:08.25]Accountants are divided over the treatment of intangible assets because they cannot make up their minds what balance sheets are for.
[00:15.57]Are they supposed to give a brave man's estimate of what a company is worth?
[00:19.49]Or are they to show (as they tend to in Britain) a cautious man's calculation of how much of a company's costs have not yet been written off against revenues?
[00:29.39]To some extent it is up to companies to make up their auditors2' minds for them.
[00:34.53]Price Waterhouse is auditor1 to both Reckitt & Colman and Rowntree.
[00:39.13]Yet unlike Reckitt & Colman,Rowntree has never included in its annual report any valuation of its famous brands,
[00:46.79]such as Kit3 Kat,Polo,After Eight and Smarties.
[00:51.04]When Nestle offered to pay over £1 billion for something that did not appear in Rowntree's accounts,
[00:56.87]it confirmed many laymen's view that accountants must be asses4.
[01:01.88]Since Nestle's policy is also to write off trademarks5 and goodwill6 immediately against reserves,
[01:07.79]the value of Rowntree's brands has once again disappeared into an accounting7 black hole.
[01:13.04]Lowly status of marketing8
[01:15.36]The fact that few British companies have pushed their accountants to value their brands could have something to do with the lowly status of marketing in the corporate9 hierarchy10.
[01:25.05]It may not be a coincidence that Jean-Claude Larreche is a non-executive director of Reckitt & Colman.
[01:32.42]Mr Larreche is professor of marketing at Insead,the international business school outside Paris.
[01:39.63]No marketing director can be happy to see the fruits of his efforts totally ignored in his company's balance sheet.
[01:45.77]Mr Larreche may also have been influenced by France's example.
[01:50.29]Companies there keep intangible assets on their balance sheet.
[01:54.49]Unfortunately this does not mean that they are any more consistent than the British.
[01:59.56]In France the issue is not valuation but depreciation11.
[02:04.19]In general,intangibles protected by a legal right(such as trademarks and,peculiarly,leasehold rights to property)are not depreciated,whereas goodwill and others are.
[02:16.78]A recent EC draft directive suggests goodwill be written off over five years.
[02:22.60]In practice,France has a host of exceptions.
[02:26.00]In 1984 Printemps,the department-store group,began to write off some FFr50 million of property rights,
[02:36.45]mostly related to its main store on Paris's Boulevard Haussmann.
[02:40.91]In its 1987 accounts Pernod Ricard wrote off FFr289 million of goodwill.
[02:49.14]That,said the company,was all the goodwill arising from mergers12 before December 31,1987.
[02:56.40]Such practice was in accordance with the recommendations of the French National Council on Accounting Standards'.
[03:02.49]The FFr245 million of intangible assets remaining on the company's balance sheet at the end of 1987 related almost entirely13 to trademarks.
[03:13.44]On the other hand,Rhone-Poulenc had almost FFr4 billion of goodwill on its end-1987 balance sheet.
[03:22.50]Its policy is to amortise goodwill over not more than 40 years.
[03:27.73]The problem of how to account for intangible assets will not go away.
[03:32.24]Indeed,it can only become more of a problem.
[03:35.46]Not only because companies are more conscious of the value of brands(and more prepared to pay huge sums to buy them),
[03:42.69]but also because Europe's economies are increasingly becoming service economies.
[03:47.87]Service firms have few assets other than intangible ones.
[03:51.94]If their balance sheets continue to take no account of their most significant asset,then what use are they?
[03:59.20]It would be nice to think that accountants across Europe will find a common solution for the treatment of intangible assets.
[04:05.86]If they do,they will themselves have shown considerable goodwill to consumers of their accounts.
[04:12.68]Text 9.2   Germans draw line at two sets of accoun
[04:18.95]UK accounts at least pay lip-service to the notion that accounts should provide a 'true and fair' representation fo what is happening at the compan
[04:27.62]but German accounting does not aim to give outsiders such as analysts15 or investors16 a 'true' or merely 'fair' picture of a company's financial conditio
[04:37.76]If this make it difficult for international fund managers to make informed investment decisions about German companie
[04:44.32]it also denies German companies access to the world's largest capital marke
[04:49.57]The fact that not a single German company has a full listing in the US is directly due to German accountin
[04:56.23]Last year, a number of Germany's largest companies-including Daimler-Benz, Bayer, Hoechst and BAS
[05:04.20]and a number of largee banks -approached the Securities & Exchange Commission in the US with a view to obtaining a listing in the U
[05:11.85]The talks came to nothin
[05:13.94]The main obstacle was the SEC's requirement that the German companies-like all companies listed in the US-should comply with the generally accepted accounting  principles(US GAAP) in the U
[05:27.24]The German companies refused to give way, and the SEC would not compromise ; hence an impass
[05:33.92]The issue has rumbled17 on since the
[05:36.67]Last month the Federation18 of German Stock Exchanges said it was likely the European Commission would enter into direct negotiations19 with the SEC on behalf of all European countrie
[05:47.43]The EC may well take up the 'reciprocity 'argument used by the German companies last yea
[05:53.54]that a company which had complied with German listing requirements ought to qualify automatically for a listing in the US,without having to comply with US GAAP.
[06:03.44]Since German listing requirements are much less strenuous,US companies have no difficulty gaining a quote there.
[06:10.34]Apart from the general principle that German companies give away very little financial informatio
[06:15.51]the main practical difference between Teutonic accounting and the Anglo-American variety is that German accounting invariably understates both assets and profit
[06:25.49]as compared to figures presented under UK rules or US GAA
[06:31.13]An exercise conducted last year by Mr Gary Schieneman ,an analyst14 for Smith New Court in New Yor
[06:37.77]showed that shareholders21'equity at Mannesmann -a large German engineering company - at the end of 1989 would have been at least 40 percent higher if presented under US GAA
[06:50.78]while net profits would have been 50 percent and 36 per cent higher in 1988 and 1989 respectivel
[06:58.61]In another study, Mr Schieneman showed how the Voldswagen car company's 1989 profits would grow form DM1.04bn under German rules,to DM1.5bn under UK rules and DM1.9bn under US rule
[07:14.68]In the answer to the question 'what did Volkswagen really in 1989
[07:18.91]Schieneman was forced to conclude that it depended entirely on your accounting perspectiv
[07:24.21]What was true for the 1989 figures ,applies equally to those produced by large German companies in 1990 and 1991,says Schienema
[07:33.36]The differences between the German and the UK and the US versions of the figures are in part due to German conservatism on specific issues such as accounting for goodwill and depreciatio
[07:45.11]but there are also more fundamental factors at wor
[07:48.11]Mrs Heidrun Haase of Deutsche Bank Research in Frankfurt identifies some of the underlying22 causes of the differences between German and Anglo-American accountin
[07:57.18]German law insists that the interests of creditors23 take precedence over those of shareholder20
[08:03.42]The so-called Glaubigerchutzprinzip,in which this principe is enshuined, means that companies are under legal pressure to understate reported profits and asset
[08:13.37]There is no distinction between tax accounts and published accounts,as there is in the UK or the US:
[08:20.06]the Massgeblichkeitrinzip ordains24 that in order to get a deduction25 for tax purposes it must be booked in the published account
[08:28.11]Thus there is a cash incentive26 for German companies to keep reported profits as low as possible ,because lower profits mean lower tax bill
[08:36.91]The structure of the German capital market does not bring pressure on companies to ramp27 up their reported profit
[08:43.42]Only about 650 German companies are listed on the stock market,and of these the vast majority are controlled by banks or families with long-term investment horizon
[08:54.13]These shareholders have access to the management accounts, which tell the full story denied to those who must rely on published figure
[09:01.68]Despite recent developments such as the Continental-Pirelli saga28 and Krupp's takeover of Hoesch
[09:08.08]there is no vigorous market for corporate control in Germany and managers do not have to present spectacular profits growth to fend29 off takeove
[09:17.06]A further unspoken reason why German companies do not want to present US- style figures is that it would weaken their hand in negotiations with union
[09:26.33]Germany's labour costs are already higher than anywhere else in Europe and the fear is that they could get higher if the unions saw the profits restated upwards under US or UK GAA


點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 auditor My5ziV     
n.審計員,旁聽著
參考例句:
  • The auditor was required to produce his working papers.那個審計員被要求提供其工作底稿。
  • The auditor examines the accounts of all county officers and departments.審計員查對所有縣官員及各部門的帳目。
2 auditors 7c9d6c4703cbc39f1ec2b27542bc5d1a     
n.審計員,稽核員( auditor的名詞復數 );(大學課程的)旁聽生
參考例句:
  • The company has been in litigation with its previous auditors for a full year. 那家公司與前任審計員已打了整整一年的官司。
  • a meeting to discuss the annual accounts and the auditors' report thereon 討論年度報表及其審計報告的會議
3 kit D2Rxp     
n.用具包,成套工具;隨身攜帶物
參考例句:
  • The kit consisted of about twenty cosmetic items.整套工具包括大約20種化妝用品。
  • The captain wants to inspect your kit.船長想檢查你的行裝。
4 asses asses     
n. 驢,愚蠢的人,臀部 adv. (常用作后置)用于貶損或罵人
參考例句:
  • Sometimes I got to kick asses to make this place run right. 有時我為了把這個地方搞得像個樣子,也不得不踢踢別人的屁股。 來自教父部分
  • Those were wild asses maybe, or zebras flying around in herds. 那些也許是野驢或斑馬在成群地奔跑。
5 trademarks 3d5cfd3d5e627e33b27fadb6b405a1dd     
n.(注冊)商標( trademark的名詞復數 );(人的行為或衣著的)特征,標記
參考例句:
  • Motrin and Nuprin are trademarks of brands of ibuprofen tablets. Nuprin和Motrin均是布洛芬的商標。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • Many goods in China have the trademarks of a panda. 中國的許多商品都帶有熊貓的商標。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
6 goodwill 4fuxm     
n.善意,親善,信譽,聲譽
參考例句:
  • His heart is full of goodwill to all men.他心里對所有人都充滿著愛心。
  • We paid £10,000 for the shop,and £2000 for its goodwill.我們用一萬英鎊買下了這家商店,兩千英鎊買下了它的信譽。
7 accounting nzSzsY     
n.會計,會計學,借貸對照表
參考例句:
  • A job fell vacant in the accounting department.財會部出現了一個空缺。
  • There's an accounting error in this entry.這筆賬目里有差錯。
8 marketing Boez7e     
n.行銷,在市場的買賣,買東西
參考例句:
  • They are developing marketing network.他們正在發展銷售網絡。
  • He often goes marketing.他經常去市場做生意。
9 corporate 7olzl     
adj.共同的,全體的;公司的,企業的
參考例句:
  • This is our corporate responsibility.這是我們共同的責任。
  • His corporate's life will be as short as a rabbit's tail.他的公司的壽命是兔子尾巴長不了。
10 hierarchy 7d7xN     
n.等級制度;統治集團,領導層
參考例句:
  • There is a rigid hierarchy of power in that country.那個國家有一套嚴密的權力等級制度。
  • She's high up in the management hierarchy.她在管理階層中地位很高。
11 depreciation YuTzql     
n.價值低落,貶值,蔑視,貶低
參考例句:
  • She can't bear the depreciation of the enemy.她受不了敵人的蹂躪。
  • They wrote off 500 for depreciation of machinery.他們注銷了500鎊作為機器折舊費。
12 mergers b4ab62fffa9919cbf1e93fcad6d3150c     
n.(兩個公司的)合并( merger的名詞復數 )
參考例句:
  • Mergers fall into three categories: horizontal, vertical, and conglomerate. 合并分為以下三種:橫向合并,縱向合并和混合合并。 來自辭典例句
  • Many recent mergers are concentrated within specific industries, particularly in retailing, airlines and communications. 現代許多合并企業集中進行某些特定業務,在零售業、民航和通訊業中更是如此。 來自英漢非文學 - 政府文件
13 entirely entirely     
ad.全部地,完整地;完全地,徹底地
參考例句:
  • The fire was entirely caused by their neglect of duty. 那場火災完全是由于他們失職而引起的。
  • His life was entirely given up to the educational work. 他的一生統統獻給了教育工作。
14 analyst gw7zn     
n.分析家,化驗員;心理分析學家
參考例句:
  • What can you contribute to the position of a market analyst?你有什么技能可有助于市場分析員的職務?
  • The analyst is required to interpolate values between standards.分析人員需要在這些標準中插入一些值。
15 analysts 167ff30c5034ca70abe2d60a6e760448     
分析家,化驗員( analyst的名詞復數 )
參考例句:
  • City analysts forecast huge profits this year. 倫敦金融分析家預測今年的利潤非常豐厚。
  • I was impressed by the high calibre of the researchers and analysts. 研究人員和分析人員的高素質給我留下了深刻印象。
16 investors dffc64354445b947454450e472276b99     
n.投資者,出資者( investor的名詞復數 )
參考例句:
  • a con man who bilked investors out of millions of dollars 詐取投資者幾百萬元的騙子
  • a cash bonanza for investors 投資者的賺錢機會
17 rumbled e155775f10a34eef1cb1235a085c6253     
發出隆隆聲,發出轆轆聲( rumble的過去式和過去分詞 ); 轟鳴著緩慢行進; 發現…的真相; 看穿(陰謀)
參考例句:
  • The machine rumbled as it started up. 機器轟鳴著發動起來。
  • Things rapidly became calm, though beneath the surface the argument rumbled on. 事情迅速平靜下來了,然而,在這種平靜的表面背后爭論如隆隆雷聲,持續不斷。
18 federation htCzMS     
n.同盟,聯邦,聯合,聯盟,聯合會
參考例句:
  • It is a federation of 10 regional unions.它是由十個地方工會結合成的聯合會。
  • Mr.Putin was inaugurated as the President of the Russian Federation.普京正式就任俄羅斯聯邦總統。
19 negotiations af4b5f3e98e178dd3c4bac64b625ecd0     
協商( negotiation的名詞復數 ); 談判; 完成(難事); 通過
參考例句:
  • negotiations for a durable peace 為持久和平而進行的談判
  • Negotiations have failed to establish any middle ground. 談判未能達成任何妥協。
20 shareholder VzPwU     
n.股東,股票持有人
參考例句:
  • The account department have prepare a financial statement for the shareholder.財務部為股東準備了一份財務報表。
  • A shareholder may transfer his shares in accordance with the law.股東持有的股份可以依法轉讓。
21 shareholders 7d3b0484233cf39bc3f4e3ebf97e69fe     
n.股東( shareholder的名詞復數 )
參考例句:
  • The meeting was attended by 90% of shareholders. 90%的股東出席了會議。
  • the company's fiduciary duty to its shareholders 公司對股東負有的受托責任
22 underlying 5fyz8c     
adj.在下面的,含蓄的,潛在的
參考例句:
  • The underlying theme of the novel is very serious.小說隱含的主題是十分嚴肅的。
  • This word has its underlying meaning.這個單詞有它潛在的含義。
23 creditors 6cb54c34971e9a505f7a0572f600684b     
n.債權人,債主( creditor的名詞復數 )
參考例句:
  • They agreed to repay their creditors over a period of three years. 他們同意3年內向債主還清欠款。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • Creditors could obtain a writ for the arrest of their debtors. 債權人可以獲得逮捕債務人的令狀。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
24 ordains 0c697c8c5cf7980223b68eec66ca6a14     
v.任命(某人)為牧師( ordain的第三人稱單數 );授予(某人)圣職;(上帝、法律等)命令;判定
參考例句:
  • The festival ordains the Jains to observe the ten universal supreme virtues in daily practical life. 盛典命令耆那教徒日常遵守十大美德。 來自互聯網
25 deduction 0xJx7     
n.減除,扣除,減除額;推論,推理,演繹
參考例句:
  • No deduction in pay is made for absence due to illness.因病請假不扣工資。
  • His deduction led him to the correct conclusion.他的推斷使他得出正確的結論。
26 incentive j4zy9     
n.刺激;動力;鼓勵;誘因;動機
參考例句:
  • Money is still a major incentive in most occupations.在許多職業中,錢仍是主要的鼓勵因素。
  • He hasn't much incentive to work hard.他沒有努力工作的動機。
27 ramp QTgxf     
n.暴怒,斜坡,坡道;vi.作恐嚇姿勢,暴怒,加速;vt.加速
參考例句:
  • That driver drove the car up the ramp.那司機將車開上了斜坡。
  • The factory don't have that capacity to ramp up.這家工廠沒有能力加速生產。
28 saga aCez4     
n.(尤指中世紀北歐海盜的)故事,英雄傳奇
參考例句:
  • The saga of Flight 19 is probably the most repeated story about the Bermuda Triangle.飛行19中隊的傳說或許是有關百慕大三角最重復的故事。
  • The novel depicts the saga of a family.小說描繪了一個家族的傳奇故事。
29 fend N78yA     
v.照料(自己),(自己)謀生,擋開,避開
參考例句:
  • I've had to fend for myself since I was 14.我從十四歲時起就不得不照料自己。
  • He raised his arm up to fend branches from his eyes.他舉手將樹枝從他眼前擋開。
本文本內容來源于互聯網抓取和網友提交,僅供參考,部分欄目沒有內容,如果您有更合適的內容,歡迎點擊提交分享給大家。
------分隔線----------------------------
TAG標簽:   會計英語  會計英語
頂一下
(1)
33.3%
踩一下
(2)
66.7%
最新評論 查看所有評論
發表評論 查看所有評論
請自覺遵守互聯網相關的政策法規,嚴禁發布色情、暴力、反動的言論。
評價:
表情:
驗證碼:
聽力搜索
推薦頻道
論壇新貼
? 弃婿归来叶凡小说免费阅读全文